on this page

Or send us an email

Application form

Pathways programs

Letters to my students

How-to-do-it guide

Essay archive

Ask a philosopher

Pathways e-journal

Features page

Downloads page

Pathways portal

Pathways to Philosophy

Geoffrey Klempner CV
G Klempner

International Society for Philosophers
ISFP site

PHILOSOPHY PATHWAYS electronic journal


P H I L O S O P H Y   P A T H W A Y S                   ISSN 2043-0728

Issue number 6
22 April 2001


I. The Use and Value of Philosophy: Round Two

II. 'Inspiration Renewed!' by Chris Schmaling

III. Top Ten Philosophy Sites: Competition



In Round Two of the Pathways Internet Conference on the Use and Value of
Philosophy (last reported on in Issue 4 of Pathways News, 11 March) I asked the
participants to write about 'a particular philosopher, past or present, whose
work or whose life you find inspiring'. There were some fascinating
contributions - and a number of surprises too. Descartes, Hume, Aristotle,
those names might have been expected. What I hadn't expected were the pieces on
Simone Weil, George Gamow, Henry D. Thoreau, Machiavelli, Plotinus. What a

Well done, all those involved!

From Canada, Associate Diploma student Chris Schmaling sent this conference
submission on the philosopher Plotinus (204-270 AD) which he has kindly allowed
me to reproduce here.

Geoffrey Klempner



Over the years I have reflected on the following words by Plotinus that I found
in a book on meditation and contemplation:

"Withdraw into yourself and look. And if you do not find yourself beautiful as
yet, do as does the creator of a statue that is to be made beautiful; he cuts
away here, he smoothes there, he makes this line lighter, this other purer,
until he has shown a beautiful face upon the statue. So do you also; cut away
all that is excessive, straighten all that is crooked, bring right to all that
is shadowed, labour to make all glow with beauty, and do not cease chiseling
your statue until there shall shine out on you the godlike splendor of virtue,
until you shall see the final goodness surely established in the stainless

Until recently I only knew that the author was a Neoplatonist, a philosopher,
and that he wrote a book titled The ENNEADS.

My first reaction to the Round 2 task was a mild panic attack as I know of a
number of philosophers but I did not have a favorite one for whom I have a
special regard. I thought back to a short conversation with a philosophy
teacher and his reply to my interest in Stoicism as a 'way of life' or
'philosophy of life.' He encouraged me to continue looking. I have since then
come to understand that the Stoic (as represented by Zeno of Citium) strives to
be virtuous through denial and repression. Such a person who is indifferent to
the world, in a sense, abstracts himself from life. This attitude of
intellectual fatalism attempts to deny man's interdependence with external
conditions and thus presents contradictions and illusions. One such problem is
that it might be short-sighted to regard such a strategy of retreat as a
'philosophy of life'.

A number of names went through my head - as well, I considered a variety of
philosophical works. After a while I decided that I would appoint Plotinus as
the exalted one and learn more about him to justify my choice. As it turns out
he is the major figure of neo-Platonism. Indeed, one modern writer refers to
him as the watershed of classical philosophy and a precursor of modern times.
Among other achievements he had found grounds to renew interest in Platonic
thought, refining some questions that the early philosophers had not been able
to resolve.

We know very little about his life: He was reticent to talk or write about it;
in fact his student Porphyry organized and published his ENNEADS after his
death in 270AD. Briefly, it appears that he was born in Egypt in 204AD. He did
not talk about his parents but Porphyry tells us that he was most likely raised
in a privileged environment and had no difficulty securing important and
influential connections. His passion for philosophy began when he was
twenty-eight years old. He studied in Alexandria under Ammonius Saccus,
Origen's former teacher. In 243 he joined Emperor Gordian's campaign against
the Persians. He did this because he wanted to go to the East and learn from
the wise and mystical Brahmins of India. However, soldiers assassinated the
Emperor and Plotinus fled to Antioch. It is possible that he had a part in the
intrigue since the fact that he fled for his life was not because of any
Persian threat. Later he founded a famous school of philosophy in Rome.

His ideas and neo-Platonism had considerable influence in philosophy, theology,
mysticism, politics, and other disciplines. The three God religions
Christianity, Judaism, and Islam reflect some of his principles. Origen and
Clement used his ideas to express Christianity. Saint Augustine, who was a
Neoplatonist before becoming a Christian conceived that spirit was immaterial
and that evil was unreal. It was necessary to combine the two attitudes thereby
giving greater authority to the Christian congregation. G. W. F. Hegel's
metaphysics had neo-Platonic ingredients. Many mystical movements in the West,
including those of Meister Eckhardt and Jacob Boehme, also owe something to
Plotinus. Poets such as Goethe, T.S. Elliot, and Novalis interested themselves
in his work.

Here are some of the themes:

Paul Henry, S.J. writes that it is largely through Christianity that Plotinus,
like Aristotle, has influenced the thought of the West. There is a remarkable
continuity of Plotinus' Hellenism with Christian thought, but the latter, on
some issues reverts to the pure rationality or the mystical rationalism of
Plotinus' Platonism, and sometimes, as in certain types of phenomenology and
existentialism, remains, on the philosophical plane, nearer to the Aristotelian
and Judaeo-Christian tradition than to the Greek idealism of Plato and Plotinus.
According to one author, Plotinus' purpose was to put into systematic form an
idealistic philosophy and thus combat the trends of Stoicism and Skepticism
that had crept into interpretations of the philosophy of Plato. Plotinus
rejected the dualism of two disparate realms of being (good and evil, material
and transcendent, universal and particular) and sets forth instead one vast
order containing all the various levels and kinds of existence. At the center
of the order is the One, an incomprehensible, all-sufficient unity. By the
process of emanation the One gives rise to the Divine Mind or Logos [word;
intellectual principle] which contains all the forms, or living intelligences,
of individuals.

Julian the Apostate considered neo-Platonism a scientific, philosophic and as
an all embracing teaching capable of elevating the soul. Plotinus believed that
God is the transcendent One, the Good, the metaphysically infinite and that only
through mysticism can one gain an understanding. The soul emanated from the
Logos is a little further from perfection. Plotinus considered that the part of
the soul which is within the individual to have a tendency to fall away from the
Mind in search of the self or identity, loses its simplicity. Numinous
experiences occur when the self regains a former level of simplicity. However,
this is beyond the control of the soul, yet occurs through a mystical return to
the abysmal One.

There is, of course, much more to Plotinus' ENNEADS, but I have been reinspired
to 'withdraw into myself and do some looking.'

(c) Chris Schmaling 2001



- And now for something completely different.

In Issue 5 of Pathways News, 31 March, I reported on the latest addition to the
Pathways Web site, a listing of the top ten philosophy web sites which visitors
could vote for by filling out a simple form, at:


"Click on 'voting form'. Enter the details of your favourite philosophy web
site - or the site you enjoyed visiting most this week - and choose the
category which best describes the web site. Don't forget your name and e-mail."

I am pleased to say that the first 'Top Ten' listing is now up - many thanks to
all those who took the time to vote.

In order to provide an added incentive, I have decided to organize a little
competition. Every time a vote is submitted it will be entered into a prize
draw. The first draw will take place on June 1. The prize is a copy of my book
'Naive Metaphysics' (Avebury 1994). The more times you vote, the better your
chances of winning. So get those mouses clicking!

Geoffrey Klempner

  Philosophy Pathways is the electronic newsletter for the
  Pathways to Philosophy distance learning program

  To subscribe or cancel your subscription please email your
  request to philosophypathways@fastmail.net

  The views expressed in this newsletter do not necessarily
  reflect those of the editor. Contributions, suggestions or
  comments should be addressed to klempner@fastmail.net

Pathways to Philosophy

Original Newsletter
Home Page
Pathways Home Page