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PHILOSOPHY PATHWAYS electronic journal


P H I L O S O P H Y   P A T H W A Y S                   ISSN 2043-0728

Issue number 16
1st October 2001


I. The murder of Martin O'Hagan

II. 'Red Hand Gang Shot Reporter' by Paul Melia and Ben Quinn

III. 'Death Threat Past of Slain Journalist' by Paul Melia
    and Ben Quinn

IV. 'Philosophical Considerations on Discourse/ Praxis' by
    Martin O'Hagan



This issue of Pathways News will be devoted to Martin O'Hagan. I have also
written a page about Martin O'Hagan for my Glass House Philosopher notebook. I
shall report on my presentation at the European Education Technology Forum in
the next issue.

My visit to University College Dublin was blighted by the news of the callous
murder on Friday night of Philosophical Society student Martin O'Hagan,
reporter for the Irish newspaper 'Sunday World'. I heard about the death the
next evening, watching the BBC News in my Hotel bedroom.

I feel devastated, angry, revengeful - and helpless.

I will not dwell on the bizarre 300-1 coincidence that this should have
happened during my brief stay in Ireland. The further coincidence that Martin
is the second of the contributors to the Pathways 'Six of the Best' feature to
die within the space of two months does deserve further comment. Like Alberto
Capizzano's essay, 'Letter from my past youth to an English youth of nowadays'
(Issue 14), Martin's fine and eloquent article reads - with the benefit of
hindsight - like a self-penned obituary. Both men were conscious that death
might not be too far away. Yet there is a tragic difference. Alberto had lived
out his four score years and ten. Martin foresaw that his death would be

Martin was with his wife Marie when he was shot three times in the back by evil
gunmen who sped away into the night. The next day a Loyalist paramilitary
spokesman talked of Martin's 'crimes against the Loyalist people'. Lying words
that stink with the stale vomit of cruelty and hatred. May the perpetrators
suffocate in their own evil bile.

Marie O'Hagan knew about the risks her husband was taking in reporting, week
after week, on the extortion and racketeering carried out by the Loyalist
paramilitaries. The events of that night must have played out endlessly in her
imagination and in her dreams. Then, finally, the horror that was so clearly
foreseen happened.

Please keep Marie O'Hagan in your thoughts and prayers. If anyone feels moved
by these lines to write, then Marie can be reached at her home address, 19
Westfield Gardens, Lurgan, County Armagh.

I reproduce below two articles from the Dublin 'Evening Herald', Saturday 29th
September, followed by Martin O'Hagan's essay, 'Philosophical considerations on
discourse/ praxis' which I have long regarded as one of the jewels of the
Pathways site.

(c) 2001 Geoffrey Klempner



The Loyalist Red Hand Defenders today claimed responsibility for the brutal
slaying of journalist Martin O'Hagan.

The 'Sunday World' investigative reporter was murdered last night as he walked
home with his wife, Marie.

The RUC [Royal Ulster Constabulary] confirmed that the Red Hand Defenders, a
cover name used in the past by the Ulster Defence Association and Loyalist
Volunteer Force, claimed responsibility for the attack which happened at about

Mr O'Hagan, who was forced to leave Northern Ireland in the past because of
death threats, was shot three times in the back by a gunman waiting in a car
close to his home. The car was later found burnt out near a loyalist area.

In a call to a Belfast newsroom the terror group said they shot Mr O'Hagan for
"crimes against the loyalist people".

Although not the first reporter to be shot during the history of the troubles,
Mr O'Hagan (51) is the first to have been murdered [in Northern Ireland].
Tributes today were pouring in from Mr O'Hagan's colleagues.

The Editor of the 'Sunday World', Colm MacGinty, said that Martin O'Hagan was a
brave reporter who served his newspaper with loyalty and distinction.

"Martin was fearless in carrying out is duties and never shirked from a
challenge despite the fact that he had been threatened before," he said. "He
was shot and died in search of the truth. With him died an element of the

The 'Sunday World' Managing Director, Michael Brophy, said that the newspaper
and his readers had lost a true gentleman.

Mr O'Hagan was described today as a "fearless and courageous journalist" by the
National organiser of the National Union of Journalists, Seamus Dooley.

(c) 2001 Independent Newspapers



Murdered journalist Martin O'Hagan had received death threats in the past.

But the RUC today said that they were not aware of nay recent threats made
against the respected investigative reporter.

During the course of his long career, he had been threatened most notably by
slain loyalist leader Billy Wright.

Mr O'Hagan has become the first journalist to be murdered in the history of the
Northern troubles.

He was a colleague and friend of former 'Sunday World' Northern Editor Jim
Campbell, who himself was the target of an assassination attempt in 1984.

Although he survived the attack at his Belfast home by the Ulster Volunteer
Force, Mr Campbell continues to work for the paper, from across the border,
despite having at least one bullet lodged close to his spine. In 1992, Billy
Wright threatened to kill Mr O'Hagan after the reporter exposed him as a leader
of the Loyalist Volunteer Force.

Following advice from the RUC, the reporter left Northern Ireland and worked at
the newspaper's Cork and Dublin Offices for about a year, before returning to
Belfast after deciding the threat against his life had subsided.

A former member of the Official IRA, he had been convicted in the early 1970's
for possession of firearms, serving a three and a half year prison sentence in
the Maze.

He regarded himself as a political prisoner, and took an Open University course
which he later continued at the University of Ulster.

Mr O'Hagan's career in journalism stretches back to his work with a Northern
Ireland political journal, 'Fortnight' which he began working for in 1985.

His career with the 'Sunday World' began in 1987, while he had also worked as a
freelance journalist in the Belfast office of the 'Irish Times'.

In 1989, O'Hagan was abducted by the South Armagh brigade of the Provisional

The reporter was released unharmed following lengthy questioning when the
paramilitaries satisfied themselves that he was not a RUC informant.

Worse was to come, however, after Mr O'Hagan earned the wrath of the maverick
loyalist leader Billy Wright, otherwise known as King Rat [a name coined by

The mid-Ulster loyalist threatened to kill Mr O'hagan, forcing him into
temporary exile in the South.

(c) 2001 Independent Newspapers



In 1969 what are euphemistically called the Ulster Troubles raised their ugly
collective heads for the nth time in the last 200 years. As a young man coming
to terms with the pointlessness of a provincial bourgeois existence it was to
give meaning and even purpose.

I left school at 15 and found my sense of freedom stifled in what I began to
feel was an absurd existence. There had to be something more than living for
the weekend and the invasion of bars and dance halls listening to the awful
show bands.

The troubles began with police men beating apparently innocent marchers off the
Derry Bridge. Pictures of a thorn walking stick-wielding out of breath RUC
Inspector repeatedly beating a peaceful protester found a ready comparison in
people's minds with the more harsh south African regime. Sharpeville was just a
few years before.

Looking back, his pleads for the common sense, 'one man, one vote' falling on
deaf ears of the repressive Police now seem a carefully choreographed piece of
political propaganda. It was mild by more violent standards that arose in the
coming years.

It nevertheless launched me and thousands of other young impressives. The
Vietnam war protests, the students revolt of 1968 and the American black civil
rights appealed to us hopeful for a brave new world. And it wonderfully
dove-tailed with ideals of the bourgeois revolutionaries of the 1798 rebellion
with their demands for freedom and equality of the marketplace. The call of
ancient sectarian sirens of holy Catholic Ireland failed to find a willing ear
among those like me who instinctively knew there had to be something other.

I began my twenty year journey which would lead me into Marxism of the
Positivistic school that was the basis of official Marxist states. But which
would also justify my opposition to the physical force men of the Provisional
IRA who couldn't turn away from the sirens which turned out to be the banshee
and her keening for the dead.

It would also help me to rationalise why killing may not always be wrong from
an Ulster political perspective. It was right for the black PJ wearing
youngsters of the VC to blow to kingdom come young GI's. It was not that
syndrome that condoned faraway wars while condemning the conflict next door. In
contrast to Lenin's pronouncements, there was no such thing as just and unjust
wars. Rather they were necessary or unnecessary. The war against Hitler was
necessary but the American war in Vietnam was not necessary. What was necessary
was the defeat by force of arms of the mighty war machine of the US.

In Ulster it seemed natural that the British Army had to be opposed because in
the 1970's it operated a repressive regime interning hundreds and at one point
several thousand men and women who were never convicted of any crime.

Soldiers had shot dead 13 people on the streets of Derry in one particular
incident. But in general soldiers had shot dozens of others in equally
controversial circumstances. As in any war, though, all sides suffer and no one
has a monopoly.

Coming from a Catholic background and having been probably the last generation
to experience the rigours of a Catholic education before the radical
innovations of Vatican Two, I felt my Marxism as the great relief. It was only
later that I was horrified to find Russell insisting that my Marxism may have
been my Catholicism by other means. Meanwhile, everything became relative.
Everything I took for granted had its basis among human beings and not
somewhere up on Mount Sinai cut out in tablets of stone.

And if I could justify shooting another human being on political grounds then
my morals had their feet of clay. Although it was to be two decades before I
heard about the Sophist Protagoras, I acted as if man was the measure of all
things and I was that man. Morality beaten into us by bullying Christian
Brothers was no longer a restraining force. Years of brow beating fell away
like a dark cloak and there was the illusion of liberation.

The troubles had begun as a romantic adventure of youth. The words of
Wordsworth continued to echo in our ears that to be young was very heaven. But
years of gaol and needless deaths and hardship bred cynicism. Marxism of the
Positivistic kind failed to answer moral and psychological questions. Indeed
such questions were petty bourgeois; they belonged to the anti-vivisection
lobby, as GPU interrogator Ivanov screamed at Rubashov in Arthur Koestler's
'Darkness at Noon'.

As imprisoned revolutionaries we were told that book was heresy. It underlined
what many had now begun to suspect. The conflict was not a struggle to rid us
of the hated bourgeois overlords, complete the Irish bourgeois revolution and
clear the decks for a 'proper' revolution. It had degenerated into a brutal
sectarian campaign of assassination.

Freedom from the daily grind of prison life run on strict military lines was
welcome. After years of incarceration the outside had become the panacea to all
my ills. The fear and loathing, the choking claustrophobia of over a hundred men
sharing two and a half standard Nissan huts, the powerlessness of year in year
out sharing the same half acre of rough tarmac on a former runway, left its

The war began again but by now the so-called best years were over and age
indicated it was a game for younger men. The drift into Quietism contrasted
with the heady days of red flags and tramping feet. The Marxism remained in the
background to justify wheeler-dealer moves. Morality no longer mattered when
life on the dole offered no alternative. In fact, doing the 'double' became a
sort of Robin Hood adventure, a facet of the class war, and dodging the dole
snoops was a game.

There was urgent need to get out of this humiliating situation. Education
offered a way but it was related to the struggle which was now the politics of
the parish pump and local government. This was the nearest we got to real
democracy. A vote for a councilor was a vote for better burial arrangement and
bin collection and a tidy park.

Class issues and Marxism can't survive in a bitter bigotry that characterised
politics in this part of the planet. The alternative is isolation and
in-fighting. Brendan Behan, the Dublin playwright, once noted that when the
Irish form an organisation the first item on the agenda is a split. There was a
split: me and the rest of the party. Someone decided that I had a disruptive
attitude whatever that was.

I felt a great sense of relief as I cast aside the scribbled note that heralded
my abrupt departure after 13 years of struggle, and lay back in bed and had a
quick doze before getting up. I was sick of it all. There were more important
issues to be faced...such as me. We had never been allowed to consider me. It
was a queer dialectic that considered one half of the contradiction between the
self and the rest.

The 1990's dawned with myself in a secure job as a reporter in one of the
popular tabloids. Money was no longer a problem. I wasn't rich but there was a
steady wage. My mind began to wander again - probably the onset of middle age.
I looked for reasons and discovered nothing so far caught my imagination. I
returned to Queen's in search of this grail of sorts. I came across the Stoics
and the rest of the Greeks, whose approach to philosophy flew in the face of
the discourse that was being promoted. Philosophy as a way of life interested
me. It was a mode of existing in the world that should transform my mediocre

In 'Symposium' Plato had shown that Socrates could be identified with Eros, the
son of Poros (expedient) and Penia (poverty). Eros lacked wisdom but he did know
how to acquire it. Philosophy took on the form of an exercise of thought, will
and the totality of being. Its goal is wisdom.

The search was for a way of life that brought peace of mind, inner freedom and
cosmic consciousness. In Xenocrates the notion of philosophy curing mankind's
anguish is explicit. Also in Epicurus who said, 'We must not suppose that any
other object is to be gained from the knowledge of the phenomena of the
sky...than peace of mind and a sure confidence.'

During the Middle Ages the scholastic university was dominated by theology.
Here professionals trained other professionals. Education was no longer
directed towards people with the sole purpose of becoming fully developed
beings. It is no accident that between the 16th and 18th Centuries genuine
philosophical advances were made outside the universities. We have just to look
at Descartes, Spinoza, Malebranche and Leibniz.

It was from the end of the 18th Century that the new philosophy made its
appearance within the universities. This was a philosophy without the trappings
of theology. With a few rare exceptions such as Nietzsche or Schopenhauer,
philosophy becomes a discourse and begins from a different environment than
Ancient philosophy.

Schopenhauer wrote that university philosophy was mere fencing in front of a
mirror. He claimed its goal is to give students opinions that suit the local
establishment He wrote, 'And yet if there is one thing desirable in this world,
it is to see a ray of light fall onto the darkness of our lives shedding some of
the light on the mysterious enigma of our existence.'

I realised that while this is true it is not the whole truth. There was a need
for serious philosophical discourse if just to clarify matters. I found Hegel
interesting on this point. Not the fellow Marxists love to rubbish, but the
real Hegel in all his turgid style that obfuscates any sense. To gleam Hegelian
meaning is to bend the mind. To open it to other possibilities and

His concept of the Whole did make sense but his sense of morality I found
compelling. In Kant I discovered a Stoic practice that embodied an art of
living to be found in Epictetus, Roman slave and philosopher. There should not
be a separation between theory and praxis. For the first time Marx's words that
philosophers only interpret the world...etc. took on a new meaning. It was the
beginning of a return to Ancient philosophy as a philosophy of practical
wisdom. Could this be the Hegelian metaphysical circle?

I went in search of meaning and discovered a potential for morality and inner
peace. Marxism is no longer the be-all and end-all but a tool to help cope and
understand a world rapidly changing in several respects. My model, if that is
the proper term, is Augustine who by philosophically re-examining his life came
to his own conclusions. His wisdom did not merely make him know it made him 'be'
in a different way.

(c) 1998 Martin O'Hagan


Martin O'Hagan's essay can be found on the Pathways site at:

and on the Glass House site at:

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