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PHILOSOPHY PATHWAYS electronic journal


P H I L O S O P H Y   P A T H W A Y S                   ISSN 2043-0728

Issue number 135
2nd May 2008


I. 'Thinking Allowed: Philosophy for Children at Gallions Primary School'
Review by Matthew Del Nevo

II. 'Placebo Religion and Philosophy' by Peter B. Raabe

III. 'What's wrong with Darwinism?' by D.R. Khashaba



What is the use and value of philosophy? This was the question posed in the
first Pathways online conference (http://www.isfp.co.uk/sitemap.html). It is
itself one of the perennial questions of philosophy, first raised in Plato's
dialogue Phaedo, where Socrates recounts the profound transformation in his own
view of the vocation to be a lover of wisdom.

In his review of a DVD produced by Gallions Primary School in East London,
Matthew Del Nevo presents the succinct case for philosophy in schools. Any
school head who ignores the value of philosophy for children in the face of the
evidence is, in my view, putting their head in the sand. Here is the clearest
example where demonstrable practical benefits are allied with the intellectual
case that Socrates proved in his life, and in his death two and a half thousand
years ago.

In his provocative article -- which will not please students of Heidegger --
Peter Raabe decries 'placebo religion' and 'placebo philosophy'. In philosophy,
the placebo effect is achieved through creating the false impression that one is
talking about something deep and important when one is not, an egregious
practice which detracts from the mission of philosophy to promote understanding
and illumination. Philosophy is not always required to demonstrate practically
how, in the words of Epicurus, it 'alleviates human suffering', but it must at
least strive to be enlightening.

Daoud Khashaba takes a bold step into the Evolutionist-Creationist controversy,
accusing both sides of failing to grasp the significance of the metaphysical
question that mere empirical or causal theories of origin fail to address. The
unique value of philosophy and in particular metaphysics lies in the way it
focuses on our inner human reality, what it is to be a conscious self who finds
things beautiful or ugly, profound or meaningless. The question, 'Why am I
here?' isn't a question about causes and effects.

Peter Boltuc, Editor of the American Philosophical Association Newsletter on
Computers and Philosophy, in which my article 'The Pathways School of
Philosophy' appeared last year (Vol 07, Issue 01), has asked me to advertise a
special issue on 'The Ontological Status of Web-Based Objects'. Contributions
of up to 3000 words should be emailed to the editor at pboltu@sgh.waw.pl or
pbolt1@uis.edu by 1st July. For those (like me) who didn't know, examples of
'web based objects' are characters in online games, web sites, electronic
images etc.

As Pirsig remarks somewhere, the Buddha may as easily reside in the circuits of
a computer as on the top of a mountain.

Geoffrey Klempner



 Thinking Allowed: Philosophy for children at Gallions Primary School
(DVD, Gallions School, London 2007)

Philosophy or 'thinking skills' as it is otherwise known is becoming more
important to schools. The movement of doing philosophy -- or practicing
thinking skills -- with children was started by Matthew Lipman in the 1970s in
the United States and became known as P4C, philosophy for children. Lipman has
written extensively in the area over the space of a lifetime. One key
theoretical text is Thinking in Education (New York: Cambridge University
Press, 1991; 2nd edition, 2003). Lipman, based at Montclair State College in
New Jersey developed the 'community of inquiry' idea as the way of doing
philosophy, or practicing thinking skills.

Lipman followed the American tradition, particularly John Dewey (1859-1952)
which has a strong pragmatic rather than speculative or history-of-ideas
character, saw philosophy as doing something and doing something for society.
What the community of inquiry does is to foster critical and creative thinking.
This means, thinking that is self-reflexive, in other words, thinking that has a
sense of its criteria, that is sensitive to the opinions of others and their
right to differ, and that is creative in the sense of not fixed, but
self-correcting. This is the kind of thinking required in a democracy. Critical
and creative thinking is good democratic thinking.

Why is this approach more and more pertinent to contemporary education? The
reasoning goes as follows. With the rationalisation of education we have tied
learning to outcomes, and mapped the curriculum to these outcomes. In assessing
whether the outcomes have been met we have developed marking criteria. At the
upper end of these marking criteria, across the curriculum, developed learning
is judged to be that which is analytical. At the lower end of the marking
criteria is learning which is descriptive. The difference here is between a
student that can remember and describe information they have been given in
lessons, and a student that can pick that information up and do something with
it; analyse, assess, evaluate, appreciate, in a word, show they understand it.

Modern technological democracies need the latter kind of person who can do
something with what they have been given, which is responsible, reflective and

The world is awash with information, but do we have the young people coming
through that know what to do with it? It is one thing to know how to access
information, it is another to be able to judge whether the information is worth
accessing. The one is a passive mind, the other an active judgement. It is the
latter modern technological democracies need.

But can we expect such 'higher order' skills of our young people? In the
democratic spirit, the answer is a resounding yes. Being a philosopher is for
everyone. When should you start? The earlier the better. Lipman started working
at the younger end with primary school children and then extended his work into
secondary schools.

The DVD under review here is entitled 'Thinking Allowed'. There is a pun on
aloud, but the title is nevertheless provocative. Are we getting our school
children thinking out loud among themselves in an engaged and intelligent
manner, or do we shut their thinking in on them and deluge them with
information. Are they allowed to think? Do our educational planners, our school
leaders even really know what thinking is? There are political questions here.
Thinking is dangerous, as Plato recognised, because once people begin to think
for themselves things can start to change in unplanned ways.

Gallions Primary school is in East London. It is multi-cultural, in fact
primarily non-Anglo. I'm just guessing, but I don't imagine the parents of
these children are London's middle class. They are mainly (I'm guessing) kids
of migrant parents trying to make a way in the new society. This is important
because it shows the democratic importance, strength and potential of embedding
philosophy into school. There are two ways of doing it. One is having philosophy
as an add-on to an already packed curriculum or under the gifted and talented
budget, the other is to embed it right through the school as the way to process
what is being taught. By 'process' I mean the students really working with the
materials they get given in lessons and playing with it. Gallions Primary has
followed the second, more adventurous route.

'Thinking Allowed' mainly shows footage of the community of inquiry, showing how
it works, how students process work, how they work together and how the teacher
operates as a facilitator. The DVD manages to show the developmental aspect of
this, by which I mean how, over time, the community of inquiry develops like a
team that knows how to work together. Also the DVD gives us at least a glimpse
of how embedding community of inquiry style learning through the school changes
the school culture in ways that have huge positive impact over time.

'Thinking Allowed' is most useful for those who are thinking of venturing down
the path of philosophy in school and want to see what it looks like; it is less
useful for those already thoroughly versed in the ways of community of inquiry.

On the point about embedding school-wide philosophy or critical and creative
thinking skills, it is true that the culture of the school will improve,
enrolments will improve, and the outputs will improve (i.e. student's
achievements). Of course there is a circular relationship between these, once
one improves, that has influence on the others.

The story of Buranda State High, a primary school in downtown Brisbane is often
cited in this part of the world. Burunda had failing enrolments on the back of
its poor reputation and performance and was going to be closed down. A new
Principal took the school on and said she would turn it around. She introduced
philosophy in school across the classes. She sent teachers off for philosophy
in schools training. The school completely turned around and begun to compete
as one of the best primary schools in the state, both for its learning culture
and the quality of students it produced. The measure of success, surely the
result of philosophy in school, was the minister of education in Queensland
picking Buranda as school of choice for his child.

In the DVD of Gallions, similar improvement in culture is mentioned. They cite
the complete drop in incidents at play-time, with students being able to sort
through their problems by talking about them. This is spontaneous and not set
up by or monitored by teachers on duty. It is simply a marked improvement in
the school's culture that is a benefit, they believe, of introducing philosophy
in school to all classes and developing a thoughtful culture out of that base.

I will not go into how the community of inquiry works, for children or from the
point of view of the facilitator, who is the teacher; and it is facilitating,
not teaching, which is big shift for some staff. You can see all this if you
obtain the DVD.

I thoroughly recommend this DVD to anyone whose interest has been aroused by
this review. As a practitioner of philosophy in schools here in Australia I
know the information is accurate. It is also well presented. The DVD is
realistic and down-to-earth, showing that philosophy in school is not something
for elite schools but for all schools that truly value learning.

More information on Philosophy in School in UK can be obtained from the leading
organisation SAPERE (Society for the Advancement of Philosophical Enquiry and
Reflection in Education) http://www.sapere.net.

(c) Matthew Del Nevo 2008

Email: research@bbi.catholic.edu.au

Dr Mathew Del Nevo
Senior Lecturer in Theology and Christian Spirituality
Dean of Research and Development
The Broken Bay Institute

For information on how to obtain the DVD contact:

Paul Jackson
Gallions Primary School
E6 6WG
Tel: 0207 476 1252



I would like to introduce two new terms into the English language: placebo
religion and placebo philosophy.

As you know a placebo is a faux-medication (such as a sugar pill) with no
active therapeutic ingredients. A placebo effect is when the patient believes
that the faux-medication he is receiving has active ingredients in it because
he's convinced he can feel its non-existent effects. The same placebo pill will
cause different patients to believe they feel very different 'effects.' One
patient may be convinced the placebo pill helps him to sleep better, while
another patient is convinced that the same pill has improved her eyesight.

I define placebo religion as when a believer believes that a piece of
supposedly spiritual writing he is reading has active spiritual 'ingredients'
within it. The same piece of writing will cause different believers to
understand the spiritual message in very different ways. But like the placebo
pill, placebo religion has no 'active ingredient' in it; the message of placebo
religion is always vague, ambiguous, full of cliches and New Age platitudes, so
that multiple interpretations can all seem correct.

When questioned or challenged on this problem of multiple interpretations, the
authors who write placebo religious books and essays defend themselves by
arguing that there doesn't have to be just one correct interpretation, and
that, in fact, they intended their writing to be variously understood. They're
willing to acknowledge that, of course, their writings will mean different
things to different people. But in actuality, this is an admission that, like
the placebo pill, there is no effectual substance to their writings. The
benefit of their writing is the placebo effect, which is never contained in the
writing itself; it is only in the believing reader. This is an example of the
sort of writings found in what I call placebo religion:

     There is only one absolute Truth, all other truths emanate
     from it. When you find that Truth, your actions will be in
     alignment with it. Human action can reflect the Truth, or
     it can reflect illusion. Can the Truth be put into words?
     Yes, but the words are, of course, not it. They only point
     to it. The Truth is inseparable from who you are. Yes, you
     are the Truth. If you look for it elsewhere, you will be
     deceived every time. The very Being that you are is Truth.
     Eckhart Tolle A New Earth: Awakening Your Life's Purpose

In placebo religion all the benefit comes from the belief of the believer. Not
surprisingly there are psychological benefits, just like there are with a
placebo pill, but there is no evidence that there's any spiritual benefit in
the writing itself. For example, there is no evidence that there is an
'absolute Truth' or that finding it will lead to some sort of miraculous change
in one's life. Without belief a placebo religion, just like a placebo pill, has
nothing substantial to offer. And to offer placebo religion as though there's
something substantial in it is clearly deceptive and immoral.

I use the word 'religion' because a lot of writing that is claimed to be
spiritual becomes religion, in that there are texts published (which gain a
sort of sacred status among believers), there are seminars (which are very much
like religious meetings), there are leaders (who claim to be enlightened), there
are faithful followers (who are awed by their leader and believe him or her
without question), there are ritualized practices, there are memorized words
and phrases, there are amulets, and so on.

The problem with placebo religion is that it causes harm in several ways.
First, placebo religious writings make the believer feel inadequate because it
leads him to feel he lacks the level of enlightenment that would allow him to
clearly understand the vague and ambiguous writings which, in fact, can't be
clearly understood. The religious response to this criticism is that the
writings don't require understanding, rather they require some sort of
mysterious 'feeling' or special 'knowing.' If the believer doesn't feel he
knows what the writings mean, then he is told he lacks enlightenment. How is
enlightenment attained? By reading the writings which the believer can't
understand due to his lack of enlightenment. This circular argument places the
responsibility for making sense of placebo religious writings on the believer;
in other words, lack of understanding is blamed on the victim.

The second problem with placebo religion is this: imagine a patient with a
serious illness is given a placebo pill as treatment. Since there is no
substantive therapeutic medication in it, the patient will continue to suffer
from the illness and perhaps even die. The same danger exists in placebo
religion: it has no real substance other than the placebo effect. The believer
will continue to be vulnerable to the ill effects of everyday life while he is
convinced his belief in the placebo religion is having a positive effect on a
negative reality.

And third, the leaders who promote placebo religious beliefs often receive
financial patronage from their followers. This financial support enjoyed by the
leaders allows them to spread the self-fulfilling prophecy that belief may bring
financial rewards, or at least that a leader's enriched life is evidence that
the life of those who believe will soon change for the better. If life doesn't
improve for believers they are once again blamed for not believing correctly or
fervently enough.

These harms in turn all lead to a still greater harm: a mistrust and
abandonment of all religious writings, many of which may in fact have something
substantive to offer those who wish to enhance their spirituality. What's the
antidote to placebo religion? I suggest it's the 'therapeutic' effect of an
examination of one's beliefs and values by means of philosophy.

Unfortunately, not all philosophy is beneficial. There exists quite a bit of
what I call placebo philosophy. The ancient philosopher Epicurus said that
philosophy which does not relieve any human suffering is just empty philosophy.
Just like a pill that is empty of any medicinal ingredients is a placebo pill,
philosophy that is empty of any beneficial 'ingredients' is placebo philosophy.

It may be argued that philosophy doesn't need to be beneficial in a practical
sense; it only needs to be significant in an intellectual sense. While this may
be true, philosophy that is claimed to be intellectually significant can also be
empty. Empty intellectual philosophy consists of published works that are
difficult if not impossible to understand because they're full of technical
jargon, neologisms (invented words), ambiguity, vagueness, New Ageisms, and
post-modernisms that lend themselves to a multitude of interpretations.

Here's an example of what I consider to be placebo philosophy:

     Understanding is the being of such a potentiality of being
     which is never still outstanding as something not yet
     objectively present, but as something essentially never
     objectively present, is together with the being of Dasein
     in the sense of existence. Dasein is in the way that it
     actually understands or has not understood to be this way
     or that way. As this understanding, it 'knows' what is
     going on, that is, what it's potentiality of being is. This
     'knowing' does not first come from an immanent
     self-perception, but belongs to the being of the there
     which is essentially understanding.

     Martin Heidegger Being and Time 1953

Placebo philosophy is often believed to be intellectually deep, conceptually
profound, consequential, and full of value. But its value is evident primarily
to believers, those individuals who believe there must surely be something
substantial in it because it sounds so important, or because they recognise the
author's name, or simply because of the fact that it was published.

Placebo philosophy, just like placebo religion, also has its awe-inspiring
sacred texts, cult-like leaders, faithful followers, and seminars. It also has
a form of ritual practice: analyzing various published editions and
translations of the 'sacred' text to find purity of meaning, searching through
secondary and tertiary sources for supportive commentary, even dissecting
phrases and scrutinizing their individual words for greater enlightenment, all
with a reverential diligence and deferential humility sustained by the belief
that, in time, the meaning of the text will clearly reveal itself.

The problem with placebo philosophy is that it causes harm in several ways.
First, placebo philosophical writings make the believer feel inadequate because
it leads her to believe she lacks the level of philosophical sophistication and
intellectual aptitude necessary to clearly understand those esoteric writings
which, in fact, can't be clearly understood.

Second, it's a waste of time. Students and graduates alike can study placebo
philosophy for many years in what ends up being a futile attempt to make sense
of that which is mostly nonsensical. Yet many writers of placebo philosophy
have argued that it's acceptable for a concept to be a self-contradictory,
self-referential, true by proclamation, and an enigma with no set meaning. But
this argument begs the question, Is it true that this is acceptable in

Third, in the same way that placebo religion harms legitimate spirituality,
placebo philosophy harms legitimate philosophy. It perpetuates the belief among
non-believers and non-academics that philosophy is obscure, difficult,
mysterious, useless, and largely absurd. Not only that, but placebo philosophy
which advocates transcendent illumination can sound exactly like placebo
religion, leading to the alienation of individuals who are simply looking for
meaningful philosophical discourse on everyday questions and issues.

What's the antidote to placebo philosophy? I believe the only solution is for
philosophers themselves to stand up against it, to point it out for what it is
when it's encountered, to refuse to study or publish it, and to write the
antidote 'prescriptions' themselves in ordinary language. I believe that both
placebo philosophy and placebo religion are a reprehensible and manipulative
deception of the human mind in its desire for deeper knowledge and higher

(c) Peter B. Raabe 2008

E-mail: Peter.Raabe@ucfv.ca

Professor of Philosophy
University College of the Fraser Valley
Abbotsford, BC

Philosophical Counsellor



I have lately been reading, for the first time, Bernard Shaw's Back to
Methuselah, first published in 1921.[1] In the long preface Shaw comments on
the Darwinist-Creationist controversy of his day in a manner which is still
relevant to the debate as it is currently waged.

Shaw begins by pointing out a truth that is generally obliterated in the
current controversies, namely that Darwin was not the originator of the idea or
theory of evolution. Darwinism -- whether as originally propounded by Charles
Darwin or as what it has become now -- is a special theory of evolution or a
special chapter in the general theory of evolution. Among the many ancient and
modern forerunners in the field, Shaw cites Goethe who,

     ... said that all the shapes of creation were cousins; that
     there must be some common stock from which all the species
     had sprung; that it was the environment of air that had
     produced the eagle, of water the seal, and of earth the

Shaw then quotes Erasmus Darwin, the grandfather of Charles, who, in a book
published in 1794 says,

     The world has been evolved, not created; it has arisen
     little by little from a small beginning, and has increased
     through the activity of the elemental forces embodied in
     itself, and so has rather grown than come into being at an
     almighty word. (p.xvi)

Shaw was not primarily concerned to criticize Darwinism as the scientific
theory it was in Darwin's work but as the philosophy of materialism and
mechanism, of cut-throat competition and unfeeling struggle for survival that
was appended to Darwinism by nineteenth century thought. He describes the
atmosphere of thought in his day:

     We were intellectually intoxicated with the idea that the
     world could make itself without design, purpose, skill, or
     intelligence: in short, without life. (p.xxxvi)

 He goes on to say:

     We took a perverse pleasure in arguing, without the least
     suspicion that we were reducing ourselves to absurdity,
     that all the books in the British Museum library might have
     been written word for word as they stand on the shelves if
     no human being had ever been conscious, just as the trees
     stand in the forest doing wonderful things without
     consciousness. (p.xxxvii)

For myself, I do not even care to quarrel with, or to charge with absurdity,
one who maintains that physical elements tumbling and knocking blindly through
trillions of years might produce Hamlet and Beethoven's Choral Symphony and all
that is good and all that is trash on the world wide web. All that, in itself,
would be dead, lifeless, meaningless. But a single conscious individual
reacting intelligently to Hamlet, moved by Beethoven's music, or feeling
indignant at some imbecility on the world wide web faces me with a reality that
is other than the physical world.

This reality, however it may have come about, is what I find meaningful, and it
is in this reality that I find life and value and true being. And I cannot think
of this reality as a by-product of anything that is without life and without
intelligence. To me any existence devoid of life and intelligence is simply
unintelligible. To me the fact that is elemental and ineradicable is not the
world that presses on me from outside -- it is something closer home; it is
this life and awareness and will that is on the inside. And I believe that this
life and intelligence in which alone I find meaningfulness is fundamental and

Shaw, in opposing Darwinism or the Neo-Darwinism of his day, advocates a
version of Lamarck's theory. He writes that to one who 'tells you that you are
a product of Circumstantial Selection solely' you may offer,

     ... the counter-assurance that you are the product of
     Lamarckian evolution, formerly called Functional Adaptation
     and now Creative Evolution, and challenge him to disprove
     that, which he can no more do than you can disprove
     Circumstantial Selection, both forces being conceivably
     able to produce anything if you only give them rope enough.

This challenge, as I see it, involves the same confusion that vitiates the
current controversies between the Darwinists and the Creationists or their
present-day successors, the Intelligent Design advocates. Shaw, in my view,
errs in treating the vitalism that may underlie Lamarck's theory,
Schopenhauer's Will, Bergson's Creative Evolution, as on a par with Darwin's
theory of natural selection. (Curiously, Shaw, while speaking of Creative
Evolution and even using the expression Elan Vital, does not mention Bergson
anywhere in his book.)

Darwin describes a method, an observed process, which may or may not be seen as
adequate to account for the successive changes in living species. Darwin,
whether he was quite clear in his own mind on this point or not, was not
concerned with what was behind the processes he described. It is not impossible
that biologists may find it desirable or necessary to supplement natural
selection with a revised version of Lamarck's adaptation and inheritance of
acquired qualities or something similar to that. This would still exclude any
consideration of what is behind the process. That cannot be approached by
scientific method. Scientific method can only tell us how -- in what manner --
the change has come about, but not what made it come about.

The how remains a brute fact without intrinsic meaning. Then comes a
Schopenhauer who says we may conceive of a Will at the heart of things. This
confers meaning on the phenomena of life but does not add anything to the facts
observed and reported by objective science. A Goethe, a Schopenhauer, a Bergson,
a Whitehead, is a poet who takes hold of brute fact and educates its brutality,
shapes it into meaning, but does not produce facts.

You might say, 'Well, similarly, a Creationist or Intelligent Design advocate
may assert that he conceives of a Creator or a Designer behind nature.' He may,
but there is a difference. The Creationist means us to regard his Creator
factually, as an existent entity. As I see it, that makes the Creator an object
on a par with the physical world. He should then be subject to the same criteria
and methods of verification applicable to nature, and by those criteria and
methods he fails.

Moreover, suppose that you can demonstrate empirically that there is a mighty
being out there controlling all the processes of the world. How can you show
that that mighty being is not itself an automaton whose movements are purely
mechanical? A mind 'out there' is a contradiction in terms. It becomes a mere
addendum to the natural world, a tortoise that carries the elephant that
carries the world.

Metaphysics does not, or should not, pretend to give us knowledge of the world
outside of us, though metaphysicians commonly speak as if they do. According to
the point of view that I have been trying to put through in all my writings, a
metaphysician, properly, gives us a principle of intelligibility which makes
the world make sense for us, makes the objectively chaotic and dumb world
orderly and coherent. The metaphysician is in the same business as the poet and
the artist who make the mindless sound and fury of the world signify something.
That is why there can be various metaphysical systems, equally meaningful, just
as there can be various epics, dramas, symphonies, equally fulfilling.

Does this land us in unrepentant Protagorean relativism? No, since I maintain
that what we find to be real -- what gives us our concept of ultimate reality
-- is our inner reality, the reality of creative intelligence and creative love
within us. This reality is absolute and ineradicable. But it is ineffable. It
cannot be constrained in a determined formulation. But it can be given mythical
expression. Hence the possibility of endless metaphysical representations,
opposed in letter but one in affirming the one reality we find within us.

Shaw, in his espousal of Lamarckism in opposition to Darwinism, was trespassing
into territory that he had no call to stray into, but he is on firmer ground
when he takes up the opposition between mechanism and vitalism. (p.lv). I think
he insightfully portrays the plight of philosophical thinking in his own day and
in ours when he says:

     Our minds have reacted so violently to provable logical
     theorems and demonstrable mechanical or chemical facts that
     we have become incapable of metaphysical truth. (p.lvi)

Metaphysical truth has become completely lost to recent and contemporary
thinking. This is not only sad; at the present juncture of human civilization
it is ominous.


1. Bernard Shaw, Back to Methuselah, 1921. The page references are to the
Penguin Books edition, 1939.

(c) D. R. Khashaba 2007

E-mail: dkhashaba@yahoo.com
Website: http://www.Back-to-Socrates.com
Weblog: http://khashaba.blogspot.com

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